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Harmonia: Memories Of The Lost Village

by Frances Thornton

Harmonia – in the Battle Creek area this name conjures up visions of a lost village, a western ghost town, or perhaps Lerner and Lowe’s “Brigadoon.” But Harmonia was a real village where real people lived, including prominent national figures like Sojourner Truth and New York Senator Nathaniel Tallmadge.

The village was laid out in the 1850s at the SW corner of Bedford Township, on the present site of the For Custer Industrial Park. But “once upon a” prehistoric time wild animals lived and roamed in this area. In 1940, as they were excavating for Fort Custer buildings, bones on a prehistoric mastodon were unearthed. These bones are now on display in the Kingman Museum of Natural History.

Potawatomi Indians were the first recorded inhabitants of the Harmonia area. The first pioneer settlers arrived in the 1830s and settled on farms in Bedford and Battle Creek townships. Among those pioneers were Enoch and Hannah Cole Mead, my foster mother’s grandparents.

I can remember as a child listening to their daughter, Mary Ette Mead Webb, telling of growing up in a house near where Sojourner Truth lived. She also told of slave owners coming through Harmonia looking for their runaway slaves. Standing by the front gate, she was sure that if they looked at her face, they would have realized that the escaped slaves were hidden in her parents’ cellar. Later that night her father loaded the slaves onto a wagon of hay and took them to Erastus Hussey who sent them on to their next stop along the Underground Railway.

A legend has grown up around another of the earliest settlers in the Harmonia area. “Uncle Billy” Harrison was “probably the first white man to see Eagle Lake” when he established his farm on the edge of the Climax prairie.[i] The story is told that he needed to sharpen his axe. The nearest grindstone was at Goddard’s farm eight miles away on the Goguac prairie. Harrison, his son John and dog Tearcoat set out one morning, reached Goddard’s by noon, sharpened his axe and began the return trip in the early afternoon. On the way they met a large black bear. As the dog gave chase, the bear turned to fight. Harrison ran to rescue his dog, kicked the bear and ended up minus the heel of his boot. As Harrison fell to the ground, the bear sprang upon him and they wrestled their way down the hill. The farmer worked free of the bear’s grip, found a stick and set about “cudgeling the bear’s head” as Tearcoat renewed his assault. Faced with this double threat, the bear retreated.

While Harrison and his exhausted dog settled down to watch for the bear’s return, Jerry ran for help. He returned in about an hour and a half with William and Andrew Eldred, armed with rifles. They eventually hunted down and killed the 300 pound animal.

The land later platted into the village of Harmonia was originally purchased from the Kalamazoo land office in June 1835 by George Casey of Cayuga County, New York, and William Carr of “Wastenau,” Michigan.[ii] Apparently neither man ever came to the area or developed the land and Carr finally sold his portion to his partner.[iii] In November 1842 Henry Hopkins and Charles Nichols of neighboring Charleston Township, Kalamazoo County, paid $850 for approximately 390 acres to George Casey’s heirs.[iv]

Five months later Quaker pioneer Reynolds Cornell and his wife Dorcas purchased 230 acres of this land from Hopkins and Nichols for $924.[v] Cornell and his family had moved to southwestern Michigan by 1838, when they were listed as among the first members of the Milton (Battle Creek) Quaker meeting. They also owned land in Battle Creek and lived for a time in Sherwood Township, Branch County, before moving to their newly purchased land on the border of Bedford and Battle Creek townships.[vi]

The Cornells, like many other Quakers, left their original faith to embrace the new Spiritualist religion which swept across the country between 1850 and 1875. Spiritualism began in western New York State after the Fox sisters claimed to be mediums who had received messages from the spirit world. Although “rappings,” automatic writing and séances were the most visible and dramatic manifestations of Spiritualism, the underlying philosophy was more complex.

Spiritualists sought to make the spiritual world, long regarded as mysterious, incomprehensible, even dangerous, seem more rational and understandable. They relied on “natural law” and provable, observable scientific facts to help them bridge the gap between the real and spirit worlds. Several elements of their beliefs appealed to Quakers, including the perfectibility of man, individual responsibility for self-improvement, the sanctity of individual conscience and the concept of the divine spark within each person.[vii]

Spiritualism also appealed to many social reformers, attracting abolitionists, pacifists, feminists and advocates of temperance. Many prominent reformers converted, including William Lloyd Garrison, Horace Greeley, James Fenimore Cooper, Harriet Beecher Stowe and William Cullen Bryant.[viii]

Both nationally and locally, many Quakers were drawn to the new sect, because of the religious tenets and the support of social reform movements. Leading Battle Creek Quakers, including William Merritt and Elias Manchester, converted to Spiritualism and were active in organizing the Independent Church of Battle Creek in the 1850s.[ix]

The conversion of the Reynolds Cornell family influenced their approach to both the school and the village they later founded. The name itself – Harmonia – was drawn from Spiritualist doctrine which emphasized the harmonious relationship that was desirable between the real and spiritual worlds. The concept of harmony was common in Spiritualist circles. For example when the famous architect and Spiritualist lecturer A.J. Davis spoke in Battle Creek, his lecture was entitled “Harmonial Philosophy.”[x] There was even a communal settlement established in western New York State in the 1850s called the Harmonia Community.[xi]

After the Cornell family settled on the “Bedford plain” the oldest son, Hiram, attended Olivet College. He returned from school full of zeal for social and educational reform. He was eager to establish a manual training school, based on the European concept popular with many Spiritualists. In this type of school students used manual labor, usually farming, to pay off part of the costs of their education. So Reynolds and Hiram Cornell set about establishing the Bedford Harmonial Institute on their farm.

By 1852 the Cornells announced that they had “secured the services of competent teachers” and were opening for the academic year. They advertised the “advantages of their institution”:

It is situated five miles west of Battle Creek, on a beautiful plain, free from unhealthful causes and the contaminating influences, by which village schools are surrounded, and is conducted upon liberal principles and great pains taken to render the tasks of the students pleasing and delightful.[xii]

When the term began in early September, instruction was offered in “a thorough English course, including Mathematics and Natural Sciences.” Tuition for the semester was $10, which could be pro-rated for a shorter period. Prospective students were advised that board and room was available from $1.00 to $1.25 per week on nearby farms.[xiii]

By 1856 the school was known interchangeably as the Bedford Harmonial Institute or Seminary. Principal Hiram Cornell stated that “the object of the Institution is to accommodate a liberal progressive class of minds.” One hundred students had been enrolled during the previous year, studying “Latin, Greek and French languages, Mathematics, Natural and Moral Sciences, and English Branches.”[xiv]

The directors of the school continued to stress the healthfulness of the area, asserting that:

During the four years that H. Cornell was proprietor of the school, not a case of severe sickness occurred. The services of a physician have never been solicited…One hundred rods from the Institutional Buildings…is a Lake of pure soft water, affording ample facilities for bathing during the warm season of year.[xv]

The program presented at the end of the school year in 1856 gives a flavor of the studies at the Harmonial Institute – and illustrates the mixture of scientific and morally reforming subjects typical of a Spiritualist curriculum. Twenty-six speakers and musical performers participated in the morning and afternoon Exercises, presenting poetical readings, musical selections and edifying essays:

Conservatism, the Handmaid of Reform; Reflections on Nature and the Deity; The Divinity of Night; The Art of Printing; The Necessity of Individual Culture; Slavery; American Honesty; A View of Typographic Reform; Life is Earnest – Life is Real; ending with and Address by Hon. Warren Chase.[xvi]

Warren C. Chase was one of the national figures who taught or presented guest lectures at the Seminary. A noted Spiritualist speaker and author for over 40 years, Chase lived in Harmonia for several years in the 1850s.[xvii]

In February 1857 the Harmonial Seminary presented a “grand display of Philosophical and Chemical Experiments” featuring the “extensive…Apparatus lately purchased.” Experiments were scheduled in “Mechanics, Pneumatics, Optics, Magnetism, Electricity, Galvanism” as well as demonstrations of the “compound Blow Pipe and Drummond Light Apparatus.” “A large quantity of the celebrated Protoxide of Nitrogen, or Exhilerating Gas, will be made, and several persons will breathe it, showing its wonderful effects upon the system.” Admission to this evening of scientific enlightenment was 12 ½ cents.[xviii]

William Barchard Stone came to teach at the Institute and married Reynolds Cornell’s daughter Delia. He later described the Institute where he and his wife both taught:

The Cornells, originally Quakers, had become Spiritualists, and the school was advertised to some extent in periodicals devoted to Spiritualism. But no “ism” entered the classroom. The lecture hall was alike free to the Christian [sic] minister, the Spiritualist and the skeptic. All got a courteous and respectful hearing. It was the aim of the founder of the school to make it non-sectarian.…The morals and good habits of the students was most excellent. I do not think that there was one among them that used tobacco or intoxicating liquors.[xix]

Stone also remembered the large hall that was used for social activities:

On Saturday evening of each week, from 7 to 10 o’clock, the hall was open to the students for dancing. These dances were always conducted with order and decorum. They served to not only give agreeable recreation, but to promote friendliness.[xx]

Stone’s description of the Seminary is one of the few remaining accounts. There are no known pictures and the few reminiscences we do have are often contradictory, especially when they describe the size and the number of the school buildings.

Because the Seminary was the only school in the area, many of the children from the surrounding countryside attended the school and boarded in a dormitory. According to historian L.G. Sweet, the boarders lived in the upper floors of the Seminary school building.[xxi] He quotes one former student who remembered “very plainly the building called ‘the Institute’ where I first went to school. The lower floor was used for various purposes and we attended school on the second floor.”[xxii]

However, according to historian J.H. Brown, the four story building known as the Bandbox (“taller at that time than almost any block on Main Street in Battle Creek”) was originally constructed as a separate dormitory while the school building was across the street. The dormitory was later cut down to three stories with a flat roof. In 1917 Brown reported that the Seminary school building burned “about 37 years ago” (1880) and that the Bandbox suffered the same fate “about 26 years ago” (1891).[xxiii]

A third historian, Charles Barnes agreed that there were two buildings and that the Seminary burned but he maintained that the bandbox was torn down for the scrap lumber.[xxiv]

After the Institute was dissolved, my great aunt Aletta Carpenter Iames and her family of 12 brothers and sisters, lived in the Bandbox. I remember her talking about the school on the first floor and the dormitory rooms on the upper floors. She lived in room No. 7 on the second floor and told entrancing stories of the swings in the attic where they used to play in inclement weather.

The one area of consensus seems to be that there was a large capacity for boarding students and guests, whether on the upper floors of the school house or in a separate building. A notice in the August 20, 1856, Battle Creek Journal advertised that “good accommodations in a large boarding house” were available at the Institute.[xxv]

In addition to accommodating students, the Cornells may have had another reason for building a large dormitory facility. A former resident of the area “stated that it was their hope to make the colony a national headquarter for their sect and several [former residents] agreed that it was not unusual for two or three hundred to come from a distance to their meetings, though comparatively few ever made the community their home.”[xxvi]

With the Harmonial Institute an apparent success, the Cornells prepared to move one step further. They set aside 160 acres for a village in which students and their families could live and work while attending the school. On November 14, 1855, Reynolds and Dorcas Cornell, Hiram and Abby Cornell, Edward T. Cornell and Rufus and Lewis Houghton filed a plat with the county Register of Deeds creating the village of Harmonia.[xxvii]

In 1856 the Cornells advertised the village, clearly outlining how the village was intended to support the school:

During the past summer, a Village Plot has been surveyed and established; each lot containing one acre. Those who desire to educate their children here, can purchase a lot, and erect a small house, in which the children can board themselves at a small expense: the acre of land affording ample facilities for exercise, and yielding a large amount of vegetables and fruits. The Principal will at all times be ready and willing to suggest and otherwise assist the students in the cultivation of their little farms; being himself a practical agriculturalist. The lots can be sold on time when it is not convenient to pay down if buildings are erected on them. Eleven lots have already been sold, and several buildings are in process of erection.[xxviii]

Although the population of Harmonia village was never large, several significant and interesting individuals owned property and lived there while the village was active.[xxix]

One of the most flamboyant figures was James M. Peebles. Originally a Universalist preacher, Peebles became a Spiritualist in 1856. Soon after his conversion, he was invited to lead Battles Creek’s congregation which was reportedly the city’s largest for a number of years. Peebles bought Harmonia village lot 59 in June 1857 for $200; he ultimately sold his holdings in 1863 for $50. Peebles left the area in the late 1860s, traveled the world and picked up a questionable medical degree. When he finally returned to Battle Creek in 1896 at the age of 73, he established the Dr. Peebles Institute of Health from which he dispensed mail order diagnosis. He eventually moved to Los Angeles where he died in 1922. True to his Spiritualist faith, he granted a newspaper interview from “beyond the grave” after his death.[xxx]

Quaker Nathaniel Potter bought a village lot for $800 in 1857 and lived there into the early 1860s. Potter was an imaginative man, a writer as well as an inventor. He advertised two of his inventions, the “Patent Moth Proof and Dividing Beehive” and the “Improved Rut Scraper or Machine for Improving Roads” as being prize winners at state fairs around the country. In 1858 Elias Manchester and Erastus Hussey signed a testimonial recommending the rut scraper which had been used in Battle Creek and Bedford with satisfactory results.

Potter and his wife moved to Battle Creek where he helped with the construction of the Quaker meeting house in Quaker (Fremont) park in 1871. When he died in 1884 Potter was the last person interred in the cemetery in the park before the bodies were exhumed and moved to Oak Hill.[xxxi]

Perhaps the most “remarkable character” among all the individuals who lived in Harmonia was Horatio Wilson. He and his wife had purchased a lot in 1857 and eventually accumulated 10 acres of land by the mid 1860s. They raised seven adopted children and were regarded as kindly neighbors. But Horatio thought of himself as a “human chronometer” and was obsessed with punctuality. A member of his family told of the time that she fell down a flight of stairs when leaving an entertainment at the Seminary. She was taken to a nearby house for treatment and Horatio was “greatly agitated and in an excited frame of mind” – not because she was injured but because he would not arrive at home on the appointed minute.[xxxii]

Nathaniel Tallmadge, U.S. Senator from New York between 1844-45, came to live in Harmonia. He had converted to Spiritualism and was “tired of politics and jaded with social life and its hypocracies” when he sought restful retirement in the Bedford community. Tallmadge died in Harmonia in 1864.[xxxiii]

Between 1857 and 1858 George Haskell of Rockford, Illinois, lived in Harmonia. He purchased over 200 acres of land in and near the village, spending approximately $5,000. He intended to open another manual training school, apparently in competition to Cornell’s Seminary. He laid out large plots of land devoted to raising strawberries to support the students. But his school was never opened and he left the village by 1960.[xxxiv]

Perhaps it was the Quaker/Spiritualist religious beliefs combined with the emphasis on social reform which attracted Sojourner Truth to Harmonia. The famous ex-slave, reformer and lecturer had lived in the abolitionist communal settlement, Northampton Association, Florence, Massachusetts, during the 1840s. In 1850 she wrote her autobiography, The Narrative of Sojourner Truth: A Northern Slave, and spent the next several years traveling around New York State and Ohio. Truth sold her book, preached against slavery and advocated the education of former slaves as well as women’s rights and prison reform.

In 1856 she came to Battle Creek to attend a Friends of Human Progress meeting. In June 1857 she purchased an acre of land on the edge of the village of Harmonia for $400. A month later she paid an additional $40 for lot 48 in the village itself. She built a small one story home and brought her children and grandchildren from the East to live with her. She and her family lived in Harmonia for ten years. During this period Sojourner Truth continued to travel and lecture, especially in Indiana. In 1867 she moved into Battle Creek to the house at 38 College Street, where she died in 1883.[xxxv]

Relations between the Spiritualists of Harmonia and their neighbors were not always comfortable. Nationally the sect had a reputation for immorality and Spiritualists were often accused of advocating free love. Because they supported careers for women and other feminist causes, members of the sect were often accused of “immoral and licentious practices, that have justly provoked the abhorrence of all right thinking people.”[xxxvi]

Locally, the same reputation was attached to Harmonia’s residents. One pioneer later reported that:

On a clear day one could stand on the Harmonia Hill by the cemetery and count 13 homes which had been broken up by the peculiar social life of the seminary bunch.[xxxvii]

The “seminary bunch” was insulted by what they regarded as this unwarranted reputation. After an 1857 lecture by “a certain itinerant lecturer, calling himself Dr. Newberry” on “The Physiology and Philosophy of Marriage,” Harmonia residents issued a vehement repudiation of the doctor’s “odious and immoral” doctrines. The proprietors felt it was necessary to explain their “motives and purposes” in starting their settlement, “as some editors and writers seem to be ignorant of them.”[xxxviii]

The principal purposed to be effected by the formation of this village are Educational and Reformatory; the former so far as it unites the advantages of a sound physical with a liberal literary education, and the latter so far as the former can herald in and develop a more beautiful and harmonic social structure.[xxxix]

“The inhabitants of, and those attending school in Harmonia” expressed “earnest and positive protest” against the advocates of “Free Love” or “lustful latitudinarianism,” They invited “all persons visiting Harmonia”:

having well formed opinions as to the best modes of aiding progress…to express the same and explain their bearing on Education and Reform.[xl]

In 1860, after eight years of operation, the Bedford Harmonial Seminary was disbanded due to financial difficulties. Hiram Cornwell and his wife lost all their money in the venture and his brother Edward also sacrificed a substantial amount. However it was Reynolds Cornell who suffered the greatest loss. As early as 1857 he was in financial distress, as he assumed all the school’s debts. In September he sold all his considerable village land holdings, his “estate and effects,” to Elias Manchester for $1.00, because he was “indebted to sundry persons in diverse sums of money which [he] was unable to pay” Manchester paid off Cornell’s debts and spent the next two years buying an selling Harmonia Village real estate.[xli]

By August 1858 Hiram Cornell was protecting village lot 63 and “his dwelling house…and all the appurtenances” from “forced sale or execution of any other final process from a court for any debt.”[xlii] The Cornell family left Harmonia in 1863 and moved to Oto County, Nebraska. Hiram left teaching and turned to farming; Reynolds lived in retirement until his death in 1876 at the age of 82.[xliii]

The final blow to the small community came in August 1862 when a cyclone struck the village. Roofs were torn off houses and barns; wood from Harmonia buildings was found five miles away in Bedford Township. One child was killed.[xliv]

By the mid 1860s a group of Methodist farmers from Erie County, Pennsylvania, began buying up the farm land around the village, ending the Spiritualist control. These new settlers had “little sympathy with the ideas of the survivors of the dwindling community.” Determined to change the religious tone of the area, they bought a lot in the heart of the village and erected a Methodist church. The reform principles that the Cornell family had taught in the Seminary had now “come to naught.”[xlv]

The 1877 History of Calhoun County pronounced the settlement’s epitaph:

The development of the village looked for a time promising…The whole matter fell through, however, and the site of the village now consists of cultivated fields, nothing remaining to denote the once contemplated greatness but the vacant school buildings and a few scattered dwellings.[xlvi]

Ever since I was a child I can remember being fascinated by the bits and pieces of stories that I heard about the mysterious village from the past called Harmonia. My fascination has been shared by many others. So I hope that some of the facts and legends I have recounted here have brought Harmonia and its people to life for all of us.

[i] J.H. Brown, “Going Back to Days Before Old Harmonia Was Settled,” Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, November 2, 1917. When the development of Camp Custer obliterated any surviving record of Harmonia village in 1917, there was a resurgence of local interest in the Spiritualist settlement. Brown wrote a series of articles in the summer and fall about the early village and nearby farms which are an invaluable source of information.

[ii] Tract Book, Original Purchaser, U.S. Land Office, Kalamazoo, Michigan, 8th day of October AD 1847. p. 305, 310. Office of County Clerk, Marshall, MI.

[iii] Record of Deeds, Calhoun County, liber 15, p. 339. Office of County Clerk, Marshall, MI.

[iv] Deeds, liber 15, p. 340, 342, 344.

[v] Deeds, liber 12, p. 172.

[vi] Ann and Conrad Burton, Michigan Quakers, Abstracts of Fifteen Meetings of the Society of Friends. (Decatur, Michigan: Glyndwr Resources, 1989). p. 464, and Deeds, liber 6, p. 515.

[vii] R. Lawrence Moore, In Search of White Crows: Spiritualism, Parapsychology and American Culture. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977). p. 3-129. This is an excellent general source on the origins and beliefs of American Spiritualists. See Faith and Practice…A Book of Christian Discipline (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting, 1955), especially pages 1-16, for the standard statement of the beliefs of the Hicksite Quakers.

[viii] Moore, p. 3-4.

[ix] Battle Creek Journal, April 25, 1856 and May 18, 1960.

[x] Battle Creek Journal, April 2, 1858.

[xi] Moore, p. 94.

[xii] (Battle Creek) Weekly Journal, August 27, 1852.

[xiii] Ibid.

[xiv] Battle Creek Journal, August 29, 1856.

[xv] Battle Creek Journal, February 22, 1856.

[xvi] Battle Creek Journal, June 6, 1856.

[xvii] Moore, p. 91-92, 108, and Deeds, liber 59, p. 462, 463.

[xviii] Battle Creek Journal, February 20, 1857. Charles E. Barnes, “Harmonia,” Sunday Journal Record (Battle Creek), May 3, 1908.

[xix] Barnes, op. cit.

[xx] After Stone and his wife left Harmonia in 1860 they taught in several other places, ending their careers in Nebraska. An ardent temperance advocate, Stone ran, and was narrowly defeated for the Nebraska legislature. Barnes, op. cit.

[xxi] L.G. Sweet, “Harmonia, Home of 40,000 Soldiers for the War of ’17, Once Designed for National Spiritualistic Headquarter,” article appearing on J.H. Brown’s Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, July 22, 1917.

[xxii] J.H. Brown, “Only Living Pioneer of Old Harmonia,” Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, July 13, 1917.

[xxiii] J.H. Brown, “Old Harmonia Had 4-Story Building,” Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, November 23, 1917.

[xxiv] Barnes, op. cit.

[xxv] Little is known about the students who attended classes at the Seminary. One of the few who can be identified was D. Claude Hawxhurst. Born in Oxford, Michigan, Hawxhurst attended the Institute before entering medical and dental studies at the University of Michigan. He later lectured at his alma mater and died at the age of 37 while on a study and honeymoon tour of Europe. Barnes, op. cit.

[xxvi] Sweet, op. cit.

[xxvii] Deeds, liber 38, p. 669-672.

[xxviii] Battle Creek Journal, February 22, 1856.

[xxix] Land purchasers and settlers in Harmonia between 1855 and 1856, in addition to those mentioned in the text: Mary Baldwin, Samuel Barr, Asa & Adeline Davis, John & Marie Dey (Day), Merton & Ettie Dey (Day), John & Madilla Edwards, Phebe Estes, Robert & Hannah Ferguson, Henry Hopkins, Louis Houghton, Orville & Mary Howe, Abiezer & Frances Jordan, Thomas & Mary Jordan, Ezra & Harriet King, Daniel & Mary Lawler, Simon Lawler, Ensley & Amy Lewis, Martin Linihan, Stillman & Caroline Morton, Morrison &Eyelia O’Neal, Asa & Julia Page, Gaylord Reeve, James & Lucy Roffee, Zerah & Eliza Ann Sawtell, Reuben Smith, Joseph & Evaline Talbot, Amos Willson, Phebe Wilson, Frederick & Huldah Wingate and Luther Wright. Deeds, libers 23-60.

[xxx] Deeds, liber 45, p. 450 and liber 60, p. 89. Mrs. Jeremiah Brown, “The First Society of Spiritualists,” in L.H. Evers, History of Calhoun County, 1877, p. 84-85, and Larry B. Massie and Peter J. Schmitt, “Battle Creek, The Place Behind the Product, An Illustrated History,” (California: Windsor Pub. Inc, 1984), p. 42, 62-63.

[xxxi] Battle Creek Journal, December 24 and 31, 1858, and Deeds, liber 44, p. 134; liber 51, p. 476; liber 53, p. 759; liber 56, p. 259, 260, 600. “About the year 1862 Dr. Nathaniel Potter started the ‘Albion Review and Battle Creek City News’ at this place [Battle Creek] which had a very brief existence,” according to E.G. Rust in the Calhoun County Business Directory (Battle Creek: Review and Herald Steam Book and Job Printing House, 1869), p. 97.

[xxxii] Barnes, op. cit. and Deeds, liber 45, p.397; liber 48, p. 702; liber 53, p. 760, liber 50, p. 124.

[xxxiii] Barnes, op cit.

[xxxiv] Barnes, op.cit. , and Deeds, liber 42, p. 268, 269, 271; liber 43, p. 235; liber 44, p. 144; liber 48, p. 168; liber 50, p. 122; liber51, p. 387, 388; liber 58, p. 642.

[xxxv] Michael and Dorothy Martich, “Sojourner Truth,” pamphlet prepared for the Historical Society of Battle Creek, 1990; Archives of the Historical Society of Battle Creek; Deeds, liber 47, p. 13; liber 46, p. 246. The land was not sold by her daughters, Diana Corbin and Sophia Schuyler, until 1896, Deeds, liber 155, p. 571.

[xxxvi] Moore, p. 118.

[xxxvii] J.H. Brown, “Old Harmonia Had a 4-Story Building,” Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, November 23, 1917.

[xxxviii] op. cit.

[xxxix] op. cit.

[xl] op. cit.

[xli] Deeds, liber 42, p. 599.

[xlii] Deeds, liber 44, p. 565.

[xliii] Michigan Tribune, October 29, 1881, and Barnes, op, cit.

[xliv] Barnes, op. cit; Battle Creek Journal, August 8, 1862; J.H. Brown, “Settled in Harmonia 64 Years Ago; Was There the Cyclone Struck,” Rural Affairs page, Battle Creek Enquirer, July 22, 1917.

[xlv] Barnes, op. cit.; Sweet, op. cit.; Rust, p. 216.

[xlvi] Evers, p. 197.